Each study is elaborated in partnership with international consulting firms and within the frame of specific working groups :  economists, CEOs, sociologists, public decision makers, and artists  gathere to support positions and proposals.

The Forum d'Avignon now has 33 international studies (international comparison of tax systems in favour of culture, monetisation of cultural content, decision-making criteria for cultural entrepreneurship, connected television, writing in the digital era, the impact of technological innovation on culture and cultural industries, referencing and calling for culture on the internet…)

The Forum d’Avignon has established large array of international studies and proposals around three perspectives for culture and the creative industries:

Financing and economic models for culture

Innovation and digital

Territorial attractiveness

All the studies can be download on the website Culture is future

Through its publications, the Forum d’Avignon seeks to take an active role in public debate and use the strength of its convictions to promote cultural diversity. 

Consulting firms partners : EY, Kurt Salmon, L’Atelier BNP Paribas, Bain & Company, Louvre Alliance.


The key figure: from 0% in United Kingdom to 12% in Latvia (4% in Italy and Spain, 6% in Portugal, Netherlands, Belgium:the applicable VAT rates on printed books vary between countries. Fiscal harmonization within the EU is limited to indirect taxation, in the form of Value Added Tax, the only tax with a truly Europewide framework, yet even this harmonization is inconsistent, since rates vary, as does the sector to which they apply. 

10 propositions for a European cultural tax system: Today’s prevailing fiscal cacophony, inevitable in a Europe under construction, calls for damaging tax competition to be transformed into a harmony that better respects the strands of European culture and its diversity. Current international developments in taxation are driving this natural trend.

Pending a future G20 for culture, the EU Member States should urgently establish frameworks that encourage a harmonized approach to taxation if they are to promote European cultural diversity around the world…

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10 propositions for a European cultural tax system: Today’s prevailing fiscal cacophony, inevitable in a Europe under construction, calls for damaging tax competition to be transformed into a harmony that better respects the strands of European culture and its diversity. Current international developments in taxation are driving this natural trend.

Pending a future G20 for culture, the EU Member States should urgently establish frameworks that encourage a harmonized approach to taxation if they are to promote European cultural diversity around the world…


Key figure: 7.9 billion euros of copyrights received in the world in 2014. Though intellectual property has proved agile facing digital development, some major economic and legal challenges still have to be overcome.

13 proposals towards a new frontier: if Europe wants to achieve a ‘winning’ harmonization it is essential to first ensure that each ecosystem is euro-compatible. It is equally essential to ensure Europe pursues its own, original, harmonization policy, rather than one cobbled together from foreign concepts. And finally, it is crucial to restore an effective legal framework so that all those involved – artists, companies and consumers – understand the meaning and scope of intellectual property.

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The key figure: The book sector is neither very digitised (a rate of just 15%) nor hybridised (with an index of 23), but creates value overall. While the sector’s compound annual growth rate (CAGR) was 0.4% between 2009 and 2013, this rate is forecast to be 1.1% between 2013 and 2018 with the hybridisation of models and the growing importance of digital technology, boosting income by 7.5% between 2009 and 2018.

Creators and cultural locations have to rely on digital technology, not vice versa. After sketching the changing profile of an e-consumer in 2014, this new study modifies the image of a new generation of cultural and creative entrepreneurs by first discussing the challenges of value-sharing from a new angle. 

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The key figure: In developed economies, 63% of adults older than 36 watch video online, 93% listen to digital music and 34% read e-books. The percentages for younger consumers are even higher: 87% of consumers aged 15 to 25 watch video online, 98% listen to digital music and 46% read e-books.

Bain & Company’s annual survey of more than 7,000 consumers in Europe, the US and Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS countries).

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Opening-up cultural data: a driver of growth? , BY EY

The quote : « Sharing proprietary data doesn’t diminish theirvalue, but enhances it »

The first wave of the big data revolution revolved around the exploitation by organizations of their owndata. The next will big breakthrough will center upon Open data – sharing proprietary data with others.Open data aims to make digital data accessible to all by structuring their distribution and lifting formatand licensing constraints to facilitate their re-use. This trend, which initially involved public or scientificresearch data, is now sweeping companies and today opens the way to all kinds of uses.

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Businesses, when data culture becomes a competitive advantage , by EY

The quote : « No substantive data ethics without a data culture » 

We heard earlier that the control of personal data is a strategic issue. That’s true both for individuals — it is part of their digital identity — and for businesses, which now see capturing, using and unlocking the value in data as crucial to their development.

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How the culture sector can best respond to the challenges of the digital age , BY KURT SALMON

The key figure : “Being well versed in e-commerce practices,” notes Kurt Salmon partner Philippe Pestanes, “they expect to benefit from practical perks (loyalty schemes, preferential prices, e-tickets, etc.) when they ‘consume culture’.”

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The quote : « Collectively deriving value from the data of the urban ecosystem: A prerequisite for the success of Smart Cities projects. » 

For several decades, the use of digital technologies has been seen as a key ingredient in the development of cities. This vision has gradually crystallised into the concept of the Smart City, a city whose digital infrastructure enables us to make better use of collective intelligence to improve the functioning of the city and the well-being of its population.

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The economic contribution of the creative industries to EU GDP and employment , by Tera consultants

The quote : « The value added by the total creative industries (core creative industries plus non-core creative industries) is approximately €860 billion, representing a 6.8% share of GDP. » 

The study is an update of a first report released in 2010 and backed by BASCAP (The International Chamber of Commerce’s Business Action to Stop Counterfeiting and Piracy). The analyse, despite confirming the importance of the creative sector in Europe, which represents 6.8% of EU GDP (€860 billion) and 6.5% of employment in Europe (about 14 million jobs), highlights the unfavorable development of cultural and creative industries in terms of employment and added value to GDP in Europe. This study also compares the evolution of the creative sector with the economy in general and the service sector in Europe.

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The AGE of curatiON : from abundance tO discovery , by BAIN & COMPANY 

The key figure: In 2013, 35% of survey respondents in France used social networks to receive video recommendations (vs. 28% in 2010) – this growth was partly at the expense of traditional critics (used by 39% of respondents in 2013 vs. 40% in 2010)

Based on a survey of 6,000 consumers in France, the UK, the US, Germany, Russia, Brazil, China and India created for the Forum d’Avignon, Bain continues its analysis of cultural trends and behaviors. This year, a particular focus was placed on curation, which is becoming a key issue in the balance of powers between distributors and publishers.

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Cultural behavior and Personal data at the heart of the Big Data industry. Finding the right balance between privacy and innovation , by ERNST YOUNG 

The quote : “Personal cultural data represent a great opportunity for the media and cultural industry to revolutionize their economic models and to stimulate creation – ad infinitum.”

The resulting ecosystem - which is reaching a new balance between the digital champions, telecom operators and media companies - is challenged significantly by the revolution of Big data. This revolution could lead to a situation where only few actors would be able to extract the value of the cultural data and to gain power of control and predictability.  The 2013 study points out the concept of “personal cultural data”, which outlines a market today in search of a new balance between privacy, sources of growth and a rushing innovation - because it is gold – for actors of digital medias and cultural sectors.

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The key figure: 48% corresponds to the commission gained by a digital book or film editor (versus 30% of the non-taxed price for a paperback book, and 17% for physical copies of DVDs)

Based on a double survey led at the international scale (on the “consumption”, interests and perspectives of cultural “consumption” of 5,000 consumers in four countries– France, Germany, USA, China …) and at the individual level (30 to 50 interviews of main ICC stakeholders of the value chain), the study tackles the relations between the following ‘powers’, the consumers of cultural products and their firms, the creators and brands, the CCI and ICT, in order to control the value chain. At last, the study suggests some proposals that could be drawn to make the ecosystem more virtuous. 


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BIG DATA : BIG CULTURE ? The growing power of the Data and its outlook for the economy of Culture

The quote : “The best illustration of this forward-looking vision comes from projects of smart cities, which synthesize the way Data can help to direct better both a territorial policy of growth and a cultural policy of development that are inevitably connected”.

In 2013, only a handful of companies was lead and has deployed an infrastructure of "Big Data" type. The challenge for incumbents of cultures to control "their" Data (that is to say, analyzing the use and consumption of cultural goods and services) includes the promise of new convergences between human activities in different but related kinds. 

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Culture, territories and Powers - The spirit of Atlas , by LOUVRE ALLIANCE 

The quote : ”By affirming the need for a new language common to works of the spirit, Louvre Alliance proposes to replace the word “culture”, exhausted by economic discourses, with “spirit”, a term dear to Paul Valéry”

On a prospective tonality, in an international perspective (European, and perhaps global), the study highlights tendencies both likely and desirable on the governance models, depending on the diversity of powers and territorial scales of culture (geographic, economic, alternatives). Few major perspectives should appear – where heritage policies do not need the same governance as creation, education or cultural policies… 

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New generations and digital culture, by Atelier BNP Paribas

Forum d'Avignon 2012 – The international study in 5 countries (France, Germany, United States of America, India, South Korea) conducted by the Atelier BNP Paribas for the Forum d’Avignon about the Y generation confirms trends and reveals a few surprises.

Some trends are clearly identified regarding the access to the cultural contents:

- Sufficiency (86%), ease (93.5%) and free (82%): the young people massively share the ideals of the internet,

- the popularity of the free access financed by the advertising (70%) benefits from the fact that is more convenient for the young people both in terms of ease and cost of use

- the digital cultural contents are now consumed online rather than downloaded

The young people also are full of surprises:

- 72% declare that they feel concerned about the copyright of cultural actors

- 80% are aware of the system of copyright protection of their country

- to pay the authors, they are in favor of contracts relying on free contents financed by the advertising (75.5%),

- the main source of cultural discovery remains the ‘word-of-mouth’ of close friends and relatives,

- the sharing and creation of new contents are a frequent trend

- the creation of  new cultural contents concerns all types of contents

These statements open many perspectives:

- In terms of formation, the Y generation is far from being passive and relies on the digital to develop new contents, should not we encourage this ability through institutional educational ways to develop it?

- in terms of diversity, are not the access and use of more and more performing creation tools giving an advantage to the countries where the young people train de facto with those strategic tools to face the economic and social challenges of the 21st Century?

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Mastering tempo in creative and media industries, creating long-term value amid accelerating demandT

Forum d'Avignon 2012 – Today, half of the data available on the web didn’t exist two years ago.

And the trend keeps on accelerating. Soon, half of the available data will be 18 month-old. This figure confirms our perception of time’s acceleration as much as it questions the rhythm(s) of production and distribution of cultural goods and services. How to measure its impact on the ecosystem of the cultural and creative industries and draw perspectives on what they « pass on »? 

Considering 12 countries at different stages of technological development and offering an analysis of the diverse components of the media sector, the Ernst & Young study recalls that the exponential increase of the digital supply, the more and more important access to contents and the multitask Homo conexus tendency to pass from one content or one platform to another largely participate to the acceleration of the medias’ tempo.

To reconcile the industrial time with the Homo conexus appetite, it is now necessary to pilot the technological innovation process. The study shows how media and culture entrepreneurs and politicians try to keep pace with the rhythm and even to overtake it.

Successful companies are the one who knew first how to encourage innovation and now know how to control it: don’t we say « Done is better than perfect » at Facebook?


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The Fabric of innovation – Management and creation, perspectives for the economic growth

Forum d'Avignon 2012 – It is at the heart of the workshop – collective or virtual – that creative imagination takes shape. 

In the anthropological mutations and the current techniques, does the ‘fabric’ of creativity change? With the predominance of aggregators and mediators, are the innovating practices in the creative industries? How do the trainings and jobs integrate those changes of paradigm to generate creative people? Can we “make” new creative methods and make the productive and social economy benefit from them?


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Culture, reasons to hope. Creation and creators, by Louvre Alliance.

Forum d'Avignon 2012 – They are numerous these reasons to hope, synthesis of dozens of interviews, meetings, and readings of intellectual and artistic personalities, whether known or unknown, acclaimed by public or outside main media networks.


Expressing so many reasons, it is at the same time ambitious and daring considering that this topic resists and widens as we think. Provocative also, when the world is doubting and coughing. Restrictive and frustrating finally, because the subject interrogates only creative imagination, and moreover in the cultural field, while they are so many other reasons to hope in science, technology, biology...

Adventurous then these reasons to hope? For sure, but:

So exciting to grasp, worldwide, a vital dynamic that has never ceased to heavily influence our societies, whatever the history or the continent.

So motivating also, because this ambition invites to reach out all those who embody creativity of today and tomorrow, because it is seeking for anything that is an underdeveloped potential, an untapped field on which to set our attention and efforts on.

Jubilant, then, to finally challenge Cassandra-like prophecies which, like a tidal wave, have never ceased throughout the centuries to predict the Artist’s death and the gradual disappearance of his opus. Throughout the world, examples abound to prove the extraordinary vitality of the creative economy in its most diverse and unusual forms, aside from the current mega hot spots and bubbling places.

This study aims at being a springboard to overcome a too-quickly-admitted fatality, a collection of everything enabling us to hope for a creative world that would not disappear without life itself vanishing.


Produced by Louvre Alliance (a management and strategy consulting firm), this study relies on a broad campaign of interviews conducted with many international personalities in the fields of culture, economy and media, as well as social sciences.


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Sept ans : l’âge de raison ? 2005-2012 : Les raisons d’espérer à l’ère du numérique 

Forum d'Avignon 2012 – Music and video game, readers and other tablets, connected games …The last seven years have seen the development of multiple technologies, with each of them supposed to revolutionize the media and entertainment economy.

Music and video game, readers and other tablets, connected games …The last seven years have seen the development of multiple technologies, with each of them supposed to revolutionize the media and entertainment economy.Have these evolutions lived up to their promises? Have the cultural consumption models observed in 2012 really created value – either use value, economical value, or social and cultural value? 
With a survey amont 7000 people in 8 countries, Bain underlines the fact that innovations which seem muddled are echoing in fact underlying trends of habits of consumption of cultural goods and services.
If the "age of reason" of the cultural industries is not coming any time soon, Bain tries a prospective exercise of modelling of value(s) by 2016, beyond the cycles of music, bookn audiovisual and video games, diverstity remains the main driving force of creation of value, confirming that today, imagination and and transmission remain more than essential to the creation of values.

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Cultural undertaking & investment: from intuition to decision making

Forum d'Avignon 2011 – From intuition to decision: who decides who invest in culture? 100 interviews, a frame of reference and 4 case studies by Kurt Salmon

How is the decision to invest in cultural projects and equipments made? What are the criteria and triggering factors behind? What are the justifications offered to favor and promote cultural projects? How do the different key players position themselves: artists, institutions, firms,…? What are the underlying “strategies” at the origin of a project? 

These are the questions answered by the study realized by Kurt Salmon for the Forum d’Avignon 2011. “Committing and investing in culture: from intuition to decision”: the title of the study summarizes well the stakes. The decision chain has been highlighted thanks to hundreds of interviews, realized for the study during 2011, all around the world: the origins, the idea, the concept. Then intuition gives way to the classical rules of management and finance: how to implement it, to concretize it, follow up in the long range or, in other words, ROI!

The economic weight of culture cannot be questioned: in 2002, cultural industries represented 12% of the American GDP, 3.8% of the Canadian GDP and already 1.48% of the Chinese GDP. The main economies and their decision makers have understood it: beyond the cultural sector itself creation spreads innovation by waves to all other economic fields and society. The decision to invest in culture cannot be made lightly or by a single player: cultural investments principally federate economic players, investors’ collectives, donors, public institutions and philanthropists. Culture is not a traditional sector, with innovating financing models, and remains a strategic field of activity.

How can the non-economic consequences of culture be measured? If the study does not have the ambition to offer a fixed framework of analysis, it remains a precious tool box for any decision maker, allowing a precise evaluation of his investment and justifying it to people who could still question its legitimacy. 8 main types of stakes are highlighted by the study: 4 economic ones, related to influence and notoriety, economic development, knowledge economy and the promotion of the heritage. 4 other ones refer to a more societal dimension: social cohesion and enterprise culture are reinforced and so are the societal responsibility of investors, the offer and usages develop in the cultural field; at last creation and artistic expression are renewed.

The next steps are identified: this frame of analysis is a first step toward the evaluation of the cultural impact of each investment. The study values the figure of the cultural entrepreneur and concludes on the need to reinforce the competitiveness of economy through culture. This ambition implies the constitution of clusters federating the various key players involved in each project. The last proposal being to put together a new financing model – tailor-made to fit culture’s characteristics – a responsible and performing pattern, thanks to “cultural and committed savings”. 

In addition to this study, four case studies focus on innovating projects: the centre Pompidou Metz, the Festival of Aix en Provence, the digitalization process of the Royal Belgian Library, the Design Fashion Architecture (DUTCH) in the Netherlands.

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The impact of cultural spending

Forum d'Avignon 2011 The lever effect of public cultural expenditure on GDP: a reality!

In 2009 and 2010, Kurt Salmon set up a database for the Forum d’Avignon, based on 11 indicators and a panel of 47 cities spread out on 21 countries and 5 continents (28 in Europe, 12 in America, 3 in Asia, 2 in Oceania and 1 in Africa). This database has made possible the presentation of a mapping of the strategies of the 47 cities studied in 2010.

In 2011, thanks to the consulting firm Tera Consultants, a step further has been achieved, posing a statistical question raised by many: are the spillovers resulting from cultural investments measurable?

The answer is not as black or white and the statistic analysis offered should remain illustrative. However, on the panel analyzed, if the public cultural expenditure represents on average 0.7% of the GDP per capita in the studied cities, this expenditure affects 10% of the GDP per capita. The lever effect is always positive and without doubt considerable, even if it only impacts and influences a certain type of initiatives. In other words: the more we invest in culture, the more dynamic is the economy of a territory!

At last, the statistic study highlights the interrelations between cultural investment and non economic criteria: the cultural investment directly impacts the attractivity and the social cohesion of territories; its size is related to the city’s wealth and constitutes an indicator of its level of development. Indeed, neglecting culture means: declining…

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Creativity, culture & the city: a question of interconnection

Forum d'Avignon 2011 – Creative cities – Presentation of Charles Landry study on creative cities

For the 2011 edition of the Forum d’Avignon, Charles Landry, the famous theorists of creative cities, delivers a first study on his research conducted on 6 European cities, within the frame of the partnership between the Forum d’Avignon and the Forum d’Avignon RUHR / ECCE.

Lille, Bologna, Bilbao, Cracow, Liverpool and the Ruhr region: what is their common point?  Creativity! This concept, developed by Charles Landry to describe innovative cities, constitutes the major asset of cities competing at a global level to localize resources, imagination and creativity, to attract investments as much as tourist! To the question, why investing in culture, Charles Landry answers with another question: what do we lose if we do not invest in culture? Because it integrates itself in a wider ecosystem within a territory and develops much beyond the limits of the cultural field. Not dealing with this topic comes to impoverishing the dynamic of firms and businesses, to threaten the social cohesion, to weakening the territory against its competitors, to losing its identity, its DNA, and so its future. Creative cities and creative economy are indivisible. 

Charles Landry makes his point through a deeply documented study, with a historical distance of 25 years, on 6 cities analyzed. To statistic figures, to interviews with directly involved key players, he adds his knowledge of an advisor to numerous cities, among which the European Capital of Culture.

Bilbao is often linked to the Guggenheim: of course, but it remains a symbol, hiding a strong policy promoting a renewal, which has transformed the city, from an industrial desert to a creative pole for service industries.

Liverpool has a different path, but started from the same acknowledgment: from an industrial city, devastated by the crisis, the city managed to transform itself, using the memory of the Beatles, in a hype touristic place as well as in a major place for scientific innovation.

Lille, the city of the North of France, is no longer the territory of former mines and textile fabrics: it symbolizes culture, conviviality and welcomes the main firms representing electronic and technological businesses in France, as well as the logistic platforms supporting their development.

The Ruhr region, European Capital of Culture, gave up its previous image associated with blast-furnaces to make of its industrial wild lands real innovative clusters, mixing design, cultural industries, research and development and education.

Bologna follows a similar path to distinguish itself from other Italian cities, benefiting from a more renowned strong cultural heritage and symbols: to artisanal specialization, the city chose to add a strategy around the localization of advance service activities, resulting in one of the highest employment rate in Italy!

Cracow chose to remember its past: after the fall of the wall, the city managed to rely on its intellectual tradition, its university, the heritage of the Jewish districts to launch a cultural renewal and become an incubator of innovation in Poland.

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Referencing cultural content on the internet, prescribing culture?

Forum d'Avignon 2011: Referencing cultural artworks, prescribing culture? By the Atelier BNP Paribas

Who references and who prescribes – concretely – culture on the Internet? To answer this question, the Atelier BNP Paribas for the Forum d’Avignon referred to many documents and … on interviews of prescribers, kings of the Web or physical markets.

A first acknowledgement appears, without surprises: for now, referencing on the Internet goes through search engines, predominantly Google. The situation is changing and a new balance appears, taking into account Facebook and Twitter. Therefore, it naturally changes the way of prescribing culture. Google highlights popular websites; the “prescribing” websites offer “more” (i.e. information with added value) than the cultural goods themselves. The new tools foster a direct prescription of the cultural good – so are doing recommendation engines or comparators.

In any case, the new prescribers of the Internet are not the traditional media, which are at the end of the value chain. These later have not always engaged for the Web, or have declined opportunities offered by the digital universe without setting up any particular system of prescription. Yet, this is precisely this system that can increase the visibility of a media on the Internet – a system made of cross-references between contents – a network of recommendations or “graph”. By relying upon existing technical referencing tools, some media on the Internet have neglected the concrete relationship to customers. This disintermediation has been reflected by a re-intermediation in favor of technical key players.

In other words, since Google’s birth in 1998, the firm has invested 100 Bn$ in the Internet and digital networks if we add up operating costs between 1995 and 2010: this is what Google paid to become the most used service with 1 Bn$ users in 2010. Amazon spent around 132 Bn$: here is the cost to become the leader in sale of cultural goods and one of the main key players of the international electronic trade. 

Google, Amazon, Facebook: those are not cultural services. Their prescription system has been invented to support the development of electronic trade in the widest sense and then applies to the media. This raises the question of the economic independence of prescription: sponsored links or majors’ blockbusters are the artworks that are broadcasted in the best way as they generate the more remunerative. But if these tools theoretically offer a wide exposure to the diversity of artistic creation on the Internet, does it break down the myth of the direct access to artworks, of the value per se of the artwork without any marketing machine around it?

The rules of the game have changed and will keep changing. Tomorrow, referencing will deal with places, objects, going beyond digital artworks: who will be the next cybertrader of our daily lives, referencing our physical world? At last, it can be that the cultural heritage to be referenced will be different: catalogues already are universal for what regards books and music; video and cinema should follow. The alliance of publishers could rebalance the relationship with the new go-betweens of the Web.

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Connected devices and services: reinventing content

Forum d'Avignon 2011 – Culture, screens and connected devices! – 5 countries on 3 continents analysed – by Bain & Cie

For the 2011 edition of the Forum d’Avignon, the consulting firm Bain & Cie realized an exclusive study on connected services and devices aiming at estimating the consequences of the announced revolution: will those be at the origin of a new reinvented cultural experience?

To answer this question, Bain & Cie launched an international survey on 3 continents and 5 countries: Europe (France, UK), America (USA) and Asia (urban India and urban China). By 2015, as connected TV is foreseen as a true revolution, the survey concludes on the increased competitiveness between the various types of screens, which will all be connected to each other in the future. But the trends are already visible, well ahead of the development of connected TV screens, notably in countries such as France where internet providers already offer, thanks to theirs “boxes” a full range of services and on-demand video. It is therefore without any surprise, that we can witness a relatively low willingness in France to access new services offered by connected TV, given their similarities to the ones already available. On the other hand, in urban India and in China, expectations are particularly high and the development of such services should go hand in hand with the increase of the time devoted to culture every day. 

From these trends, the study draws a certain number of lessons. In a connected universe in which demand will influence consumption, the role of search engines and prescription via social networks will be critical. Besides, if blockbusters, which will keep fueling tomorrow’s main TV channels and networks prime times, are not threatened by on-demand video, the situation is rather different for specialized channels: on average audiences, demand could beat traditional linear consumption. The brands gathered by channels and producers will then have to differentiate their offer in this widened universe, necessarily less differentiated. At last, some programs, some cultural experiences, still limited to the long tail and not reaching the main channels’ program schedules, should, on the other hand, benefit from a better exposure and reach a larger public, without questioning the current economic situation. From this perspective, connected devices and services constitute a real opportunity for more confidential programs, being more demanding, or for the sharing of the catalogue constituting our audiovisual and cinematographic heritage – that is to say a real occasion for culture, notably for opera or performing arts!

At last, the study explores the different opportunities offered by the connected universe in terms of cultural heritage and beaux arts: these latter should benefit from the advantages of digital technologies, such a real time 3D or the kinesic recognition, allowing the development of new ways of visiting museums (the Google Art Project is a good example of this) or the digital access to places, such as operas or castles (e.g. Orange currently works with the Chateaux de Versailles on a project of this type). Apps should also completely renew the way of visiting museums, considerably enriching the traditional services offered (e.g. audio guides).

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Intellectual property in a digital world

Forum d'Avignon 2011 : Engaging for intellectual property, 16 countries analyzed - Ernst & Young study

From Napster to Deezer : more than 10 years separate those two music platforms, with on the one hand a symbol for piracy, since then transformed into a legal platform, and on the other hand a streaming service allowing the listening of music without buying it, based on a funding through advertisement or subscription. The world has changed as the web grew taking on a new dimension. Halfway through the path, intellectual property has been confronted with new challenges: adapting itself to the technical context, taking into account the emergence of disrupting uses , promoting innovation and the apparition of new offers – and above all allowing the artists to finance their projects and creation to keep developing. These stakes are, among others, the ones described in the international study carried out by Ernst & Young for the 2011 edition of the Forum d’Avignon.

Focusing on 16 countries, this study on intellectual property in the digital age reminds us that intellectual property is a universal value. International agreements exist as most countries acknowledged. However, differences appear in the way of enforcing laws. An example: the Berne Convention protects copyrights up to 50 years after the death of the author, this minimal threshold is established in Saudi Arabia, in Canada in China, in South Korea and in Japan; it goes up to 60 years in India and reaches 70 years in Germany, Australia, Brazil, the USA, France, Italy, the UK, Russia and Turkey. Mexico thwarts all analysts’ expectations with a protection going up to 100 years after the author’s death.

If intellectual property is recognized by everyone, the legal frameworks differ from a country to another. All have in place ways of fighting piracy out, in order to symbolically switch from Napster to Deezer. Yet, innovations, fines, flexible responses, limitation or even disconnection of broadband accesses, closing down of websites, do not have the same effects everywhere : China and Russia have strengthen their set of laws against piracy to better protect intellectual property – a fundamental immaterial good for all of the most advanced economies, but it has not consequently hit piracy. Enforcing the law required a control of flows and questions the responsibility of Internet access suppliers, at the heart of the debate in many countries. This is a difficult balance to find: most countries also want to foster the diffusion of artworks which could be as free as possible in order to promote imagination and culture.

Without any surprise, it is possible to see that the set of laws cannot solve all issues. This is the superimposition of measures that guarantees efficiency. Technology has its assets thanks to digital imprint or to the control of flow related to artworks accessible in the “cloud”. Similarly, partnerships between distributors and aggregators are at the heart of the innovating systems: frameworks and content go together. These alliances can preserve reputations. The method used can also avoid legal risks and make possible the optimization of the management of license fees and a better distribution of artworks. Orange cooperates with DailyMotion and Deezer, Google works with Hachette, Facebook and Apple with the American studios; new alliances are an early sign of the emergence of a new ecosystem in which copyright could be respected and artworks exhibited in a better way? Everyone has its responsibility, designed as “accountability” by Americans and that the French language cannot translate without being ambiguous: the best distribution system to finance the best of creation, hand in hand.

In conclusion of the study: it is time to step in! Beyond common principles, all should now engage and stick to their engagements, so that the Internet remains attractive, because of the multiplicity of choices and cultural diversity granted to consumers.

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The way to cultural diversity

Forum d'Avignon 2011: Tax systems in favor of culture analyzed in 18 countries! By Ernst & Young

For the 2009 edition of the Forum d’Avignon, Ernst & Young realized a first comparative study on tax policies in favor of culture, in 14 countries. In 2010, a first update has been completed with analysis of the Greek and South African examples. In 2011, Australia and Turkey have been added to this international benchmark, now covering almost all of the G20 countries. 

In the 18 countries studied (South Africa, Germany, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, South Korea, Spain, the USA, France, Greece, India, Italy, Japan, Mexico, the UK, Russia and Turkey), tax systems are used within the cultural sector to support creation. Cultural taxes are far from being an exception: they are the rule! The study acknowledges the systematic resort to incentives (reduced rates, tax credit, exemptions etc.) On the other hand, a major difference appears when talking about specific measures, that is to say the implementation or not of cultural taxes aiming at directly financing the sector: only 11 countries out of 18 are impacted, with France leading the way with 14 specific taxes, followed by Greece with 9 taxes, all other countries only offering one to three types of cultural taxes. The inventiveness in terms of taxes mainly relates to the audiovisual sector, notably in France (6 taxes out of 14).

The French exception can be a source of confusion when considering the readability of tax systems. But it above all indicates a massive support of culture in its wholeness. Other countries choose to have more specific types of support (e.g. video games in Canada or music in Germany).

Despite the diversity and inventiveness of tax measures, the study acknowledged that all countries give priority to cinema, to facilitate investments and locate shootings, as well as to the cultural heritage. Characteristics exist, related to specific policies in force in the various countries studied : South Africa mixes supports to culture and sport whereas China and India, because of their population and their size, support investments in rural area to foster the access to culture and the transformation of public cultural organizations into private players.

Apart from the UK, privileging cultural players (firms, physical persons and philanthropists) and investors, the study highlights different choices depending on the countries: Brazil and Spain mainly chose to support investors thanks to specific tax systems, whereas 11 other countries favor a fiscal policy in favor of cultural key players.

Cultural tax systems are impacted by austerity policies in western countries: for 3 years, the less advantageous tax systems in favor of philanthropy in the USA has led to an important decrease of the private financing of culture; in Italy, in Greece, in Spain – 3 European countries where public finances are rather weak, we can witness a significant drop of the state involvement.

In Europe, only France and Germany steadily support culture, in terms of direct public investment as much as by maintaining tax incentives. Among the emerging world-powers, some made of culture a clear priority: Russia, China and Turkey massively increase their public engagement for culture. Paradoxically, main players in the field of cinema and audiovisual, such as Brazil and India, reduced in 2011 their public support to culture.

Internet and the digital economy are still put aside, except in Canada. They actually remain taxed more to finance other cultural activities. The trend acknowledged in 2009 is confirmed: the new media are the poor sources of financing and the strong room to reallocate a part of their cash flows to media and culture.

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Back to the edition 2011 : Investing in culture

Continue the discussions and discover the interviews, columns, videos, and the first pictures of the Forum d'Avignon 2011... before seeing the debates in full on video and then, in 2012, in the Acts of the Forum d’Avignon with all the interventions and the drawings by JUL.

Every day articles, synthesis, columns are published on CULTURE IS FUTURE. Follow the Forum!


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- The impact of digital technology on the world of culture and the media – Study Atelier BNP-Paribas 

The Atelier BNP-Paribas presents an overview of the first decade of the 21st century analyzing the « main trends » and « first hints of the new trends » allowing a comprehending of the new behaviors. Perspectives for the economy of culture are drawn, notably through case studies.
How is the market of cultural ‘apps’ structuring itself? What are the disruptive behaviors? Group purchasing, participation in brands 'activities, choosing a brand according to its values, getting an overview before buying online, co-opting and advising, protecting one’s personal details, make one’s own promotion, … What is a disruptive economic strategy? Distribution’s models, access to offers, ‘multichannel’ and group offers, articulation between long term and short term… How do they influence the field of Culture and its economy?

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- Publishing in the digital era - Bain & Company Study

Will e-readers and tablets change the book ecosystem forever? Bain & Company surveyed 3000 consumers in three continents to assess the impact of new digital platforms on reading behavior.

The results suggest that more than 20% of book sales could be digital by 2015 in select markets, capturing up to 25% of the overall value pool. The impact is significant along the entire value chain, challenging historical pricing policies, as well as relationships between retailers, publishers and authors.

One issue emerges as most critical: merely translating existing content will not generate sustainable value. Experimenting with new formats, for example non-linear, social, is where the opportunity lies.

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Monetizing digital media and culture : creating value that consumers will buy - Ernst & Young Survey 

Technology has fundamentally changed how and where consumers access content, fragmenting audiences and revenue streams. M&E companies have to learn how to defragment consumer relationships to reconnect with audiences. While the online payment is growing, the free Internet myth is well ingrained. M&E companies are searching new ways to monetize online products and services. They are developing multiple paid content strategies that focus on value for consumer.
Micropayment is reemerging as a monetization strategy amid increasing pressure to unbundle content and price it in a way to maximize incremental consumption and minimize the canabilsation of existing revenue streams.
But how to make micropayment work in media and culture industries?

Ernst & Young survey of the consumption habits in 12 countries (Germany, Brazil, China, South Korea, Spain, USA, France, India, Italy, Japan, UK and Russia) and interviews with economists and C-Suite executives from leading media companies enabled Ernst & Young to make the following 3 proposals :


1. Innovative offerings based on the bundling of content as a service
2. Introducing a pricing policy based on the direct-to-consumer model and services
3. Adapt of internal systems (information, management, payment) to make the new business models work.

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(In case of use of any elements present in the study, the following mention is required "Study Ineum Consulting for the Forum d'Avignon - Culture, economy, media)

Second edition of the barometer « Cultural appeal of an international selection of major cities » - What strategies for sustainable employment and urban development planning?

The Ineum Consulting/Kurt Salmon 2010 study for the Forum of Avignon analyzes the interrelation between culture and the economic performance of territories.

The analysis of a 47 cities from all around the world panel confirms the economic importance of the cultural sector (3.4% of the panel’s employment), and suggests that territories focusing on culture have a lower and decreasing unemployment rate. 

The selection of the fields of activity and the cross- sectoral cooperation are two key factors in the success of cultural strategies. The availability of trainings and education in culture constitutes a competitive asset as well; it is however not sufficient to ensure local employability.

These results are leading to several outlooks:

- How can new ways of cooperation be developed between private sector, public sector, education centers and creative people? 
- How to open up the fields of study to foster creativity, improve the integration into working life, and attract businesses? 
- How can culture and local heritage be promoted through digital technologies and big events?

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 The Ernst & Young international survey on tax policies in the cultural sector (Update 2010)

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(In case of use of any elements present in the study, the following mention is required "Poll BVA-Orange for the Forum d'Avignon - Culture, economy, media)

On the occasion of the third edition of the Forum d’Avignon around the theme « More accessibility, new usage in a digital era: culture for everyone? », the polling institute BVA realized an exclusive poll for Orange and the Forum d’Avignon. Six questions related to the topics at the center of the reflections of the Forum have been posed to a panel of 1117 persons representative of the French population over 15.

Several perspectives became apparent…

Some examples

74% of the French think that the new technologies of information and communication fostered the access to culture

The youth, the less qualified and the less privileged particularly benefited from the Internet, as a tool which clearly promoted a better access to culture. Thus the part of individuals considering that the Internet positively increased the access to culture reaches 82% of the people under 25, 81% of the non qualified persons and 87% of those earning less than 1 500 €/month.

- The French seem to be ready to spend money for two types of contentsfilms (27%) and music (26%) – these two types of contents being the two more affected by illegal downloads.

The poll BVA-Orange for the Forum d'Avignon is now available on the website of Orange and the Forum d'Avignon. Orange is an official partner of the Forum d’Avignon.

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(In case of use of any elements present in the study, the following mention is required "Study Bain & Cie for the Forum d'Avignon - Culture, economy, media)
Getting out of the recession : a new innovation model for the cultural economy?

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Bain & Co Website 

Why do we need innovation? Why is it so vital to our economies? Can innovation help us look forward, in the aftermath of today’s economic crisis? Can we innovate without making growth our sole focus for progress? Who are today’s innovators? How can our society define and measure the effects of innovation? Innovation is inherent to progress.

(In case of use of any elements present in the study, the following mention is required "Study Ernst & Young for the Forum d’Avignon - Culture, economy, media)

International benchmark of cultural tax policies

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Ernst & Young website

The benchmark realized by Ernst & Young for the Forum d’Avignon takes into account 14 countries and offers an international overview of the different tax systems in the field of culture, being : Heritage, press, publishing industry, cinema, media, life performing arts, plastic art ... This study is the first of its kind at an international level. 

Through cultural taxes or financial incentives, the use of tax policies is linked to polical strategies and choices, underlining the specificity of culture. Such strategies can focus on particular sectors or target all the firms of a given cultural activity. Tax incentives are materialized by reduced tax contributions in favor of cultural investors and decision makers (it can be understood as tax expenses for the State). Cultural taxes create a profit that is often allocated in a redistributive way.  

(In case of use of any elements present in the study, the following mention is required "Study INEUM Consulting for the Forum d'Avignon - Culture, economy, media)

Barometer 2009 : Culture, as an economic or symbolic stake in the perspective of an improvement of territories appeal

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Ineum Consulting website

The INEUM Consulting study for the Forum d’Avignon proposes for the first time a barometer of the cultural appeal of the territories. It highlights the correlation between the cultural and academic intensity and their economic performance. 32 cities have been studied, representing the five continents. More over, case studies propose a detailed analysis of the development strategies of Abu Dhabi, Nancy, Brussel, Montreal and Bilbao. Creating and innovating for a new world.