Economic models hybridization

Digital technologies have significantly impacted traditional financing models of creative and cultural sectors.

Under the combined effect of the abundance of cultural works, the questioning of the value chain and the growing use of readers-audience members-flâneurs-amateurs-musicians-players-visitors’ data, it must be concluded that the financing models of these sectors are more and more ‘hybridized’, mixing income sources and conditions (fee for service, renting, subscription, advertising model, crowdfunding…).

How to combine the public’s perception of the value of cultural works and the necessary financing for cultural creation and diversity? How creative and cultural sectors manage to hybridize their financing models? What evolutions to consider regarding financing models, especially the ones that could largely “spread” within the chain?

So as to offer concrete proposals, in 2015 the Forum d'Avignon leads with its partner Kurt Salmon a study and some working groups on the following topic :

‘Which economic models at the age of collaborative economy ?’


Works by the Forum d’Avignon on economic models hybridization


  • July 10th, 2015 : « The challenges of collaborative economy for photography » Account of the conference of the Forum d'Avignon at the Rencontres de la Photographie of Arles, READ
  • June 12th, 2015 : »Has the internet taken control of the cultural economy »  Account of the Forum d’Avignon at Futur en Seine 2015 READ


  • Have the cultural and creative sectors found the formula for development in the digital age? The imperative of moving towards business-model hybridisation to sustain and promote culture, with Kurt Salmon (december 2015) READ
  • ECBN Manifesto 2015 « The cultural and creative industries in Europe » final version, july 2015 READ
  • Generation #Hashtag: a new wave of content in the age of digital natives, with Bain & Company (2014), READ
  • Creators, producers, distributors, consumers, public authorities…who really has overall control?, with Kurt Salmon (2013), READ
  • The Fabric of innovation – Management and creation, perspectives for the economic, with Kurt Salmon (2012), READ
  • Mastering tempo in creative and media industries, creating long-term value amid accelerating demand, with Ernst & Young (2012), READ
  • Cultural undertaking & investment: from intuition to decision making, with Kurt Salmon (2011), READ
  • Creativity, Culture and the City : a question of interconnexion, with Charles Landry (2011), READ
  • Publishing in the digital era, with Bain & Co (2010), READ
  • Monetizing digital media – Creating value consumers will buy, with Ernst & Young (2010), READ
  • Culture & Economic performance: what strategies for sustainable employment and urban development planning ?, with Ineum Consulting / Kurt Salmon (2010), READ
  • Getting out of the recession: a new innovation model for the cultural industry ? with Bain & Co (2009), READ
  • Culture – A symbolic or economic success factor for urban development planning ?, with Ineum Consulting / Kurt Salmon (2009), READ


  • Serendipity, A New Boost to the e-Consumer" by Laure Kaltenbach and Olivier Le Guay, Huffington Post Business, June 18, 2015 READ


  • Self-production: a boon or a bane for aspiring artists?" by Joy Habib, March 22, 2015 READ
  • "When the mass becomes patrons" by Emma Granier, March 21, 2016 READ


  • Web review of May 1st, 2015: Culture and financing : gather and rule. READ
  • Web review of July 3rd, 2015: Summer festivals 2015 : open-air cultural ecosystems. READ